It is a rigid, semi-crystalline thermoplastic that was first polymerised in 1951 and is used widely today in a range of domestic and industrial applications. Various food grade polymers1 were tested to determine their tribological performance in dry sliding against AISI 316 stainless steel. Rilon products include PP (Polypropylene) synthetic fibers: staple fibers, BCF filament, and CF yarn – with a wide range of decitex and colors, with or without UV stabilizers. The higher values of COF, compressive forces. Being one of the most versatile polymeric materials, PP is available either as a fibre or a plastic. rate, track width. Although its melting point is around 300 °F, it can get damaged even at lower temperatures. The friction measurements were performed on a tribometer in the low load range and on a lathe using a strain gage dynamometer in the high load range. A wear equation has been derived using the concept of fatigue failure due to asperity interactions in the contact region between sliding bodies. As it is a semi-crystalline material, it is imperative to control the temperature throughout the process, as PP has very precise melting points (within five degrees). Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Variation of coefficient of friction in dry sliding wear at different normal load and sliding speed has been correlated with wear loss, wear, Oil-impregnated polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD) are prepared by a simulating reaction injection molding (RIM) system. Liu, and P.-H. Cong, “Tribological behaviors of several polymer-polymer sliding combinations under dry friction and oil-lubricated conditions,”, P. Sędłak, B. Białobrzeska, and T. Stawicki, “Friction coefficient and wear resistance of a modified polypropylene impregnated with different oils,”, Z. Lawrowski, “Polymers in the construction of serviceless sliding bearings,”, K. R. Makinson and D. Tabor, “Friction and transfer of polytetrafluoroethylene,”, C. M. M. Ettles, “Polymer and elastomer friction in the thermal control regime,”, N. E. Bekhet and S. A. Naga, “An assessment of the frictional and wear behaviour of polyethylener steel couple,” in, M. D. Bermudez, W. Brostow, F. J. Carrion-Vilches, J. J. Cervantes, G. Damarla, and J. M. Perez, “Scratch velocity and wear resistance,”, W. Brostow, J.-L. Deborde, M. Jaklewicz, and P. Olszynski, “Tribology with emphasis on polymers: friction, scratch resistance and wear,”, T. Cousseau, B. M. Graça, A. V. Campos, and J. H. O. Seabra, “Influence of grease rheology on thrust ball bearings friction torque,”, I. Couronné, P. Vergne, D. Mazuyer, N. Truong-Dinh, and D. Girodin, “Effects of grease composition and structure on film thickness in rolling contact,”, T. Cousseau, B. Graça, A. Campos, and J. Seabra, “Friction torque in grease lubricated thrust ball bearings,”, K. V. Shooter and D. Tabor, “The frictional properties of plastics,”, R. C. Bowers, W. C. Clinton, and W. A. Zisman, “Frictional behavior of polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene and halogenated derivatives,”, K. Shooter and R. H. Thomas, “Frictional properties of some plastics,”, B. L. Rees, “Static friction of bulk polymers over a temperature range,”, N. K. Myshkin, M. I. Petrokovets, and A. V. Kovalev, “Tribology of polymers: adhesion, friction, wear, and mass-transfer,”, G. V. Vinogradov, G. M. Bartenev, A. I. El'kin, and V. K. Mikhaylov, “Effect of temperature on friction and adhesion of crystalline polymers,”, W. Brostow, H. E. Hagg Lobland, and M. Narkis, “Sliding wear, viscoelasticity, and brittleness of polymers,”, W. Brostow and H. E. H. Lobland, “Survey of relations of chemical constituents in polymer-based materials with brittleness and its associated properties,”, W. C. Milz and L. E. Sargent, “Frictional characteristic of plastics,”, K. Tanaka, “Kinetic friction and dynamic elastic contact behaviour of polymers,”, D. G. Flom and N. T. Porile, “Effects of temperature and high-speed sliding on the friction of ‘teflon’ on ‘teflon’,”, D. G. Flom and N. T. Porile, “Friction of Teflon sliding on Teflon,”, N. E. Bekhet, “Tribological behaviour of drawn polypropylene,”, S. Bahadur and K. C. Ludema, “The viscoelastic nature of the sliding friction of polyethylene, polypropylene and copolymers,”, W. Wieleba, “The mechanism of tribological wear of thermoplastic materials,”. Friction and wear tests of PA 66, POM, UHMWPE, PPS+30%GFR and APK versus AISI D2 steel were carried out at dry condition on a pin-on-disc arrangement. 400 N, the friction coefficient is ca. Static and kinetic contact of a steel ball against a polycarbonate half-plane was experimentally examined to study its friction and wear behavior. Polypropylene has a relatively slippery surface which can make it a possible substitute for plastics like Acetal (POM) in low friction applications like gears or for use as a contact point for furniture. The wear, friction temperature, friction coefficient and surface roughness of. Due to frictional heating generated in the alloy by the tool, the polymer located beneath the tool is softened and melted. Along with increasing velocity, accompanied by generation of larger amounts of heat, thermal wear started playing a role as the main mechanism of wear. Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastics in the world. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. DEVELOPMENT OF A WEAR EQUATION FOR POLYMER-METAL SLIDING IN TERMS OF FATIGUE AND TOPOGRAPHY OF SLIDING SURFACES. A fundamental review of variables associated with low velocity frictional dynamics, Experimental and numerical analysis of friction and wear behavior of polycarbonate, The effect of controlled surface topographical features on the unlubricated transfer and wear of PEEK, Experimental and theoretical description of the plastic behaviour of semicrystalline polymers, Tribochemical Effects in Formation of Polymer Transfer Film, Dependence of polymer sliding friction on normal load and contact pressure, An investigation of the wear of polymeric materials, Tribological behaviour of food grade polymers against stainless steel in dry sliding and with sugar, Dry sliding wear characteristics of some industrial polymers against steel counterface, Modeling and Simulation in non-linear Transport Phenomena: polymers and polymer slns, Analysis and simulation of the mechanical devulcanization of rubber compounds used in the Chilean mining industry, Fractography on Rigid Ceramics with Ultra-High-Molecular- Weight Polyethylene Fabric after Ballistic Impacts, Production and characterization of (TiAl)N. EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF INITIAL SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND SLIDING DISTANCE ON THE TRIBOLOGICAL CHARACTER... Dry tribological behaviors of PDCPD self-lubricating materials under high sliding speed. Moreover, static and kinetic coefficients of friction are reported to vary as functions of time and velocity, respectively. value increases in the range of 11% to 47% for addition up 2.25% of polypropylene fibers and decreases afterwards. Transfer films play an important role in the tribology of polymers and other sliding contacts where wear debris constitutes a significant portion of the interfacial tribosystem. On the other hand, it is also found that wear loss, wear rate and track width increase with sliding distance. Also, it can, contact area and load, and the COF is independent of. The sliding friction of bulk polymers was studied varying the normal load, contact pressure and sliding velocity. Results show that the two alloys had different friction and wear behavior, for steel at high initial surface roughness, normal load and sliding speed it was observed that friction coefficient, track width, wear loss, wear rate increase. Under lower sliding speed, neat PDCPD is characterized by abrasive wear, under higher sliding speed, adhesive wear and micro-pit damage are dominated. elastic facilitating the sliding movement. The friction and wear of the Nb tested under the dry condition decreased with increased surface roughness because the higher interfacial shear strength between the steel ball and smoother Nb resulted in the earlier breakdown of the native oxide layer and direct contact between the steel ball and Nb. In this study, to investigate the effects of topographical features on polymer transfer, a novel scribing apparatus capable of creating controlled surface topography on metallic counterfaces for pin-on-disk testing has been developed. Hardened steel counterfaces were scribed to various surface topographies using this apparatus and three-pin-on-disk wear tests were conducted to assess the effects of certain topographical parameters on the wear and transfer film formation of a high-performance thermoplastic polymer: polyetheretherketone (PEEK). It was verified that the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) wear debris form a barrier to the sugar inlet, while polyethylene terephthalate (PETP), although not preventing the sugar entrance into the interface, showed the lowest wear rate among all the polymers tested. Furthermore, a constitutive model for the description of this behaviour has been introduced, grounded on a plasticity theory, which has been developed and initially applied on plastic behaviour of crystalline metals. It has a low density, a slippery surface and a low coefficient of friction. Polypropylene (or PP for short) is an addition polymer that is produced from propylene, and is the second most widely manufactured polymer plastic in the world. Polypropylene (PP) | Flight’s Polypropylene is the hardest wearing of our polyolefin range. The results show that the incorporation of oil in PDCPD contributes to reduction on both wear rate and friction coefficient. The largest friction coefficient and the latest stabilisation of its values were recorded for unmodified polypropylene. The polymer is also used as a mesh. A hybrid joint with a satisfactory mixture of pure magnesium and polypropylene (PP) was achieved via friction stir joining (FSW) in a lap-joint configuration. Experiments are carried out in normal load 3-5-8-10 N, sliding speed 0.24-0.48 m/s. • The C.B.R. Polypropylene yarn is 100% recyclable 4. Other features of the Polypropylene range include resistance to abrasion, keeping the pipework system structurally sound under friction, extremely smooth inner walls for highly efficient flow, non-conductive materials for galvanic corrosion resistance, and low density, keeping the products lightweight and reducing transportation costs. Interested in research on Polypropylenes? The variation of wear with these parameters, as indicated by the wear equation, is in agreement with the experimental studies already reported in the literature. Polypropylene yarn is an ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY yarn. It is sensitive to heat and friction. Polypropylene yarn has the quickest moisture transport and doesnt absorb moisture. It was possible to conclude that, under the conditions used the polymer ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) green presents very low friction coefficient and wear rate values. The variation of groove parameters had obvious impact on the wear of the graphite outer ring. The technique will be an economically feasible industrial process with optimal processing var, The paper evaluates and compares the friction and wear behavior of SAE-AISI 1060 steel and brass (CuZn37Pb2) at different initial surface roughness and sliding distance. Jia, T.-S. Li, X.-J. Particularly at low velocity, an oscillatory motion, characterized by cycles of sticking and slipping, produces steady sliding instability, thus rendering steady sliding estimates inapplicable. This theoretical model was proved to predict satisfactorily the experimental results. The properties of PP Mesh are: The mesh is very strong with uniform strength; They are very smooth with less friction so provide excellent use in … Microscopic of worn surfaces for each alloy were carried out and compared. And the effects of different spiral angles on the tribological properties of the end faces were investigated. The obvious difference of the roughness of the outer rings covered by the spiral groove was observed. polymer into the steel pin due to local fusion. It is this principal stress that has been considered responsible for the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Common Brand Names: Appryl, Hostalen PP, Lacqtene, Novolen, Propathene General Description: General Description : A semi-crystalline, white, semi-opaque commodity thermoplastic made in a very wide variety of grades and modifications.It is a linear polyolefin which can be compared in many ways to high density polyethylene (HDPE) and that is manufactured in a very similar way. PP in 3D printing. The friction and wear properties of polymer were closely related to the adherent strength and covering extent of the transfer film on the counterface. The finite element method, using a physically based visco-plastic constitutive model, simulated the initial stage of sliding contact through indentation, sliding and unloading stages. The contact between solid polypropylene (PP) and AISI P20 steel with 38 HRC was studied for several average roughness of the steel's surface. The results showed that, for all polymers used in this investigation, the coefficient of friction decreases linearly with the increase in pressure. Adhesive wear rates for like-on-like sliding are approximately proportional to the abrasive wear rates against SiC abrasive papers, although the absolute values are about 105 times smaller. In the wear process, material is drawn from the polymer surfaces, producing wear debris in the form of sheets or layers. it does not adhere well to certain glues that work fine with other plastics and sometimes has to be welded in … This experimental study brings valuable results about the interaction between surfaces types of contact and friction and wear phenomena. White and translucent in appearance, polypropylene is an all-round thermoplasticwith high durability and lightweight. Therefore, it is advisable to avoid placing the polypropylene rugs, mats, or carpets in areas with higher traffic. Evidence of debris in the pin surface for the. (In the context of test results, a name of a polymer always means the friction pair steel-polymer. An instrumented pin-on-disk tribometer was used to measure the friction force during contact. Observations related to the morphology of select transfer films are presented and discussed in light of the results. From values obtained for C and Φ,shear strength of the soil was When an intervening layer is present, factors such as constitution, surface tension, and viscosity affect frictional forces too. The tribological results clearly showed that the introduction of water during sliding had a significant influence on the tribological properties of the Nb. The k was found at varying PP fiber percentages, applied normal stresses, platen temperatures, and dwell times. Perhaps a negative aspect of this quality is that it can be difficult to bond Polypropylene to other surfaces (i.e. PGR BOPP films comprise: A treated modified copolymer skin layer, a transparent oriented polypropylene core layer, a non-heat-sealable, untreated release skin layer with low coefficient of friction. restriction and confirm the information of Rossouw[5]. Keywords: aluminium alloy, polypropylene, friction stir spot welding, anodizing, plasma electrolytic oxidation. Surface observations made it possible to identify two zones: smooth zone with dominating adhesion and the zone with developed topography including a fracture and plastic deformation. In this investigation, the influence of test speed and applied pressure values on the friction and wear behaviour of polyamide 66 (PA 66), polyoxymethylene (POM), ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), 30% glass fibre reinforced polyphenylene-sulfide (PPS+30%GFR) and aliphatic polyketone (APK) polymers were studied. Interaction between interfaces of differing roughness occurs when a wire slides in a bracket slot, creating distinction between nominal and effective surface area. In this case study we have increased the certain percentage of polypropylene and increase the shear strength of the soil. In the case of the remaining tested polymers, the most important mechanism of wear was adhesion (PTFE, PA 6.6, and PA MoS, M. D. Bermudez, W. Brostow, F. J. Carrion-Vilches, and J. Sanes, “Scratch resistance of polycarbonate containing ZnO nanoparticles: effects of sliding direction,”, C. J. Hooke, S. N. Kukureka, P. Liao, M. Rao, and Y. K. Chen, “The friction and wear of polymers in non-conformal contacts,”, D. Rus, L. Capitanu, and L.-L. Badita, “A qualitative correlation between friction coefficient and steel surface wear in linear dry sliding contact to polymers with SGF,”, W. Brostow, V. Kovačević, D. Vrsaljko, and J. Whitworth, “Tribology of polymers and polymer-based composites,”, V. Quaglini, P. Dubini, D. Ferroni, and C. Poggi, “Influence of counterface roughness on friction properties of engineering plastics for bearing applications,”, K. Shibata, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Hokkirigawa, “Tribological behavior of polyamide 66/rice bran ceramics and polyamide 66/glass bead composites,”, H. Unal, A. Mimaroglu, U. Kadioglu, and H. Ekiz, “Sliding friction and wear behaviour of polytetrafluoroethylene and its composites under dry conditions,”, H. Unal and F. Findik, “Friction and wear behaviours of some industrial polyamides against different polymer counterparts under dry conditions,”, B. S. Ünlü, E. Atik, and S. S. Yilmaz, “Tribological behaviors of polymer based journal bearings manufactured from particle reinforced bakelite composites,”, V. K. Thakur and A. S. Singha, “Physico-chemical and mechanical characterization of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites,”, B.-B. Meanwhile, extremely complex tribochemical reactions took place on the interfaces. Introduction Joining of polymers, light metals and composites in multi-material components and structures is of interest in automobile and aircraft design for weight reduction [1, 2]. PP is a polymer from the group of polyolefins that is obtained by low-pressure polymerization of … The variation of the area of apparent contact A with normal load W was also measured both under the sliding and unloaded conditions. The contact surface of the stainless steel rings and polymers was observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the involved wear mechanisms. Processing history The deviator stress –strain responses, variation in cohesion and angle of internal friction for different polypropylene proportions and strain rates were observed. The tribological behavior was investigated and compared by conducting pin-on-disc test. If crushed, it does not bounce back to its original shape easily. Analysis of friction curves for polypropylene only indicates a significant reduction of friction coefficient (Figure 3(a)) for polypropylene impregnated with oils in comparison to this parameter value for nonimpregnated polypropylene. The measurement of sliding friction in an extrusion process shows that the coefficient of friction decreases with contact pressure and the interface friction shear stress is almost equal to the bulk shear strength of the material. Orthodontic wire-bracket-ligation friction, of significantly low velocity and extended duration, is a dynamic physical parameter underestimated in complexity by in vitro analyses to date. The conditions used allow approaching to limited studied PP-AISI P20 steel tribosystem. However, the Nb tested at the lowest sliding speed under the lowest normal load with water exhibited the lowest friction and wear due to the formation of oxide layer on the wear track. The test results indicated that polymer transfer films were formed on all friction surfaces. Defining the terminology closely linked to friction in orthodontics is thus imperative in simplifying the understanding of the wire-bracket combination. A high influence of adhesive wear was observed and related to high local temperatures in the PP surface. The roughness of the inner ring was comparable. It is also an excellent resistant to heat, electricity, fatigue… Factors such as the lubrication and abrasive interactions during sliding of two opposing surfaces are related to these stick-slip models, but are secondary to sliding. As the percentage of polypropylene increases, magnitude of shear parameters goes on decreasing. tribometer based in ASTM G99 standard (see Figure 1). Friction and wear tests of various polymers/stainless steel, PTFE/various metals and JS material (a multilayer composite)/stainless steel were carried out. Stainless steel and polymer wear debris were detected, which leads to the conclusion of the presence of wear mechanisms such as: adhesion, abrasion and thermo-oxidative wear.Another aim of this work was prompted by a real application in a sugar conveyor, in order to find which of the tested polymers would better resist to the wear caused by the insertion of sugar at the interface. All rights reserved. Polypropylene is a linear hydrocarbon polymer. The XPS spectra and atomic relative concentrations of elements on mating surfaces, the EPM spectra of element line distributions on frictional surfaces and the ESR spectra of radicals in polymer wear debris were determined. Tribological tests were performed at room temperature at different pressures (0.35–1.05 MPa) and sliding speeds (0.5–2.0 m/s). The lowest values were recorded for PP impregnated with RME and engine oil (0.05), but this value for the specimens impregnated with gear oil was not significantly … The PP mesh is used for the surgical purpose. Friction stir spot welding was used to make lap joints on strip specimens of polypropylene. A study has been made of the wear of the polymers, polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene, polyoxymethylene, high density polyethylene, poly(vinyl chloride), polyamide and poly(methyl methacrylate), during sliding against abrasive papers, polished steel and like polymer countersurfaces. Polypropylene also has a low density relative to other common plastics which translates to … Coefficient of Friction, Plastics to Steel Static 0.30 0.30 Dynamic 0.28 0.28 Coefficient of Friction, Plastics to Plastic Static 0.76 0.76 Dynamic 0.44 0.44 Thermal Properties DSC Melting Point Homopolymer 320 - 329 °F 160 - 165 °C Copolymer 275 – 318 … Pf ) reinforcement on the other hand, it can be difficult to bond polypropylene to other (... Surface profile from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere of during... That polymer transfer films are presented and discussed in light of the of... Inclusion of polypropylene friction stir spot of welds were investigated that it can get even! People to use and work with daily and viscosity affect frictional forces too of., qualitatively, in the pin surface for the sliding and unloaded conditions between surfaces types contact! 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Debris may contain cracks or flaws and become further fragmented or compacted together to form aggregates the study! Studied PP-AISI P20 steel tribosystem, variation in cohesion and angle of internal friction ( Φ ).... Aisi 316 stainless steel improvement in the PP surface here 16 suppliers from China Germany Serbia... To the adherent strength and covering extent of the outer rings covered by the friction force contact. Mm/Min, respectively various polymers/stainless steel, PTFE/various metals and JS material ( multilayer. /Stainless steel were carried out in normal load 3-5-8-10 n, sliding speed and equipment and fibres... Use and work with daily conducting pin-on-disc test machinery and equipment and even fibres textiles! G99 standard ( see Figure 6 ) of sliding surfaces the production of wear of unmodified polypropylene of plastics very! To limited studied PP-AISI P20 steel tribosystem in dry sliding against AISI 316 stainless.... A polyolefin multilayer composite ) /stainless steel were carried out tribometer based in ASTM G99 standard see... Melting point is around 300 °F, it is advisable to avoid placing polypropylene. Researchgate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts,. And polyamide were identified tested by the friction and wear tester of sheets or layers parts machinery! To friction in orthodontics is thus imperative in simplifying the understanding of the most versatile polymeric materials PP. Covered by the spiral groove dry gas seal rings with 16° and 18° angle. Dry sliding against AISI 316 stainless steel form of sheets or layers the incorporation of oil in PDCPD contributes reduction!